Waze-Crazy – Would Facebook Drop a Billion on Waze?
As often happens lately, I had no intention of writing about anything in the news due to lack of interest. However, Marc Prolieau wrote an article this morning on the rumor that Facebook would pay one billion dollars for Waze, and then wrote me to ask my thoughts. I, then, saw an article berating Google for not being the company that was buying Waze. It was at that point that I began thinking that I must have missed some major development at Waze. In turn, this idea prompted me to do some research and write a commentary on the potential acquisition.
In the spirit of openness, I was contacted by someone representing themselves as Facebook’s “location” guy shortly after my blog about the problems associated with the release of Apple Maps in 2012. We never connected. So, I do not have any contacts at Facebook, nor do I have any contacts at Waze with whom I am in communication. Also, in the spirit of openness, I thought about titling this essay “Startup Crowd-Sources Corporate Value.” So, let’s get going.
Waze describes itself as follows:
“After typing in their destination address, users just drive with the app open on their phone to passively contribute traffic and other road data, but they can also take a more active role by sharing road reports on accidents, police traps, or any other hazards along the way, helping to give other users in the area a ‘heads-up’ about what’s to come.”
“In addition to the local communities of drivers using the app, Waze is also home to an active community of online map editors who ensure that the data in their areas is as up-to-date as possible.”
At the end is a video, which can be linked to from the above referenced About Us page on the Waze website. The video ends with a note to this effect – “Keep in mind that Waze is a driver-generated service. Just, as other user-generated projects, it depends on user participation. Your patience and participation are essential.”
I don’t know about you, but if Waze is going to pick up a billion bucks based on my labor, I’d want more than a note indicating that my participation and patience were essential to their success. However, the more interesting question is whether or not Waze is worth $1,000,000,000.00.
To get my arms around valuing Waze I decided to go through a brief acquisition checklist
What is it that is worth a billion dollars at Waze?
Waze is minor brand that remains generally unknown around the world. I think it might be difficult to put a high valuation on a company whose product is crowd-sourced and whose brand represents the industrious endeavors and lacks of its audience. Note that use of “lacks” here does not indicate that these people are dolts, rather that the user profile is likely not uniform (standardized) or distributed uniformly across geographical space. In turn, this suggests that the product is not uniformly accurate across that same space. As a consequence, the brand’s value may exhibit a significant spatial and temporal variation.
Distribution/Users ? No.
Wikipedia claims that Waze was downloaded 12 million times worldwide by January 2012 and 20 million times by July 2012. By the end of 2012, according to Waze, that number had increased to 36 million drivers. Today, there are apparently 44 million users. To be honest, I am not sure how to parse the information on downloads. Downloads do not indicate active users. The notion of downloads, also, does not indicate geographic coverage or the ability to harvest GPS traces or active crowdsourced updates in specific geographies.
Next, I am not sure how Waze measures users, nor was I able to find any definitive source for this information. I doubt that it has 44 million active users. An article in the Huffington Post indicates that Berg Insight, a Swedish market research firm, says Waze has from 12 million to 13 million monthly active users. If Berg Insight is correct, then the Waze contributors are likely spread thin on a worldwide basis and likely concentrated in a modest number of large urban areas. In addition, how long the active users of Waze have been contributing GPS traces or active updates would appear to be time limited based on the reported number of users and the growth of the company.
So distribution remains unknown, except, perhaps, to Waze. However, even if they could validate the number of reliable active users, it remains unclear how those users are distributed across the geographical space of Waze’s target markets.
Finally, another problem is the type of driving usually performed by Waze users. Are the majority of the miles traced those showing a repetitive journey to work five days a week? I suspect this is a large portion of the tracks they receive. If this is true, then their distribution is likely quite limited in terms of the uniformity and the extent of geographic coverage.
Intellectual Property, Trade Secrets, Know-how? No.
Waze has 100 employees. I am sure that they are bright, energetic and extremely capable. I doubt that what they may know, have codified, filed as patent applications or hold as trade secrets is worth anything near a billion dollars. After all, it is not that other people are ignorant on the topic of how to build a crowdsourced mapping system.
Map Database? No.
Waze claims that in 2012 its users made 500 million map edits and upgraded the map to reflect 1.7 million changes on-the-ground that took place in 110 countries with community-edited maps. Ok, just what does this stuff really mean?
Updates may merely reflect the poor quality of a map base or even the lack of a map base available to Waze for its customers use. The number of countries involved does not necessarily indicate that the company has complete, up-to-date coverage in any of these countries. More problematically, I suspect that Waze has no objective method of assessing the accuracy of its maps compared to other sources. For those of you who need a short primer on Spatial Data Quality, see my blog on the Apple Maps fiasco, as this is the reason they got a failing grade on their product roll out.
Again, the issue here is how many users have been contributing GPS traces and active edits and over what period of time. It appears to me that the time horizon of Waze is too short to have created a map database of considerable value.
Other Assets (intangibles)? No.
Waze has some uniquely capable people and assets, but, for me, they do not tip the scales at a billion dollars.
Is the whole worth more than the sum of the parts? No.
I just can’t get to the billion dollar number no matter how I combine the basic facts. I have read the articles indicating that Facebook needs its own map base so it can customize it for mobile advertising, or that it needs its own map database in order to compete in the mobile location market. I suppose a company can convince itself of anything and Facebook may have crossed the chasm based on these types of assumption. If so, I think they are wandering in a labyrinth of strategic blunders.
Yes, they could wind-up with their own map database, but I suspect that with this purchase will from day one be a headache in terms of spatial data quality. Facebook will spend more money fixing and tuning the Waze database than if they had licensed a database from Nokia or TomTom or from a collection of companies, as has Apple. In turn, the adoption of their “mapping product” by the market might be significantly delayed.
The more serious issue is that dealing with the quality of the Waze database and integrating the database with other Facebook applications will subtract cycles from their efforts in areas that are core to building a successful Facebook mobile business. In the end, Facebook will come down with a serious case of buyer’s remorse, as they will eventually ask the question “Why wasn’t anyone else willing to pay a billion dollars for Waze?
In a final check of the Waze site tonight I noticed that the Waze homepage (http://www.waze.com/) redirects to http://world.waze.com/?redirect=1 , which is a complete and absolute blank. Perhaps the deal is done. Or, it might simply be a map tribute to Lewis Carroll.